Adaptation and Resilience


1. Climate Bonds Standard V2.1
2. Climate Bonds Standard & Certification Scheme Brochure


November 2018: AREG Launched    

June 2018: Adaptation and Resilience Principles to be released for Public Consultation

Any questions on Adaptation and Resilience?

Please Contact Ujala Qadir at:

What is Adaptation and Resilience?

Climate risks and the need to build climate adaptation and resilience (A&R) capacity present new opportunities, in both developed and developing countries. There is a need for A&R innovation across a range of sectors. Such innovations include water-efficient technology, drip irrigation, wind-, flood-, and heat-resilient building materials, new financial and insurance products, early warning systems, drought-resistant seeds, and new health products, among many others. The private sector can also gain many non-financial benefits by investing in A&R, in the form of enhanced liability management, increased reputation among local communities, and employee protection.

Thus far, green bonds have focused primarily on mitigation efforts and less on adaptation. Robust criteria for mitigation for several sectors have already been developed under the Climate Bonds Standards, but strategic guidance is needed for introducing A&R criteria across all sectors in a consistent and systematic manner. 

The Adaptation and Resilience Expert Group (AREG) 

CBI convened an Adaptation and Resilience Expert Group (AREG) to discuss and develop the A&R Principles, which will provide high-level guidance for determining when projects and assets are compatible with a climate resilient economy, and therefore should be certified under the Climate Bonds Standard.

The A&R Principles will provide the framework under which sector-specific A&R Criteria will be subsequently developed by sectoral Technical Working Groups (TWGs), following review by the AREG. For the sectors that already include A&R Criteria, the AREG will evaluate their fit with the framework and provide recommendations on alignment. For the new sector criteria under development, the AREG will provide guidance to ensure alignment with the framework.


Members of AREG
Biographies of current members of the Technical Working Group are available here

Puja Sawhney
EU Switch: Asia SCP Facility

Alfredo Redondo
Senior Manager: Adaptation Diplomacy
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group

Neuni Farhad
Project Officer: Adaptation Research
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group

Karoline Hallmeyer
Climate Policy Initiative


Federico Mazza
Adaptation Lead
Climate Policy Initiative

Joyce Coffee (AREG Lead) 
Climate Resilience Consulting

Craig Davies
Head of Climate Resilient Investments

Carel Cronenberg
Associate Director: MRV Manager


Cinzia Losenno
Senior Climate Change Specialist

Emilie Mazzacurati
Founder and CEO
Four Twenty Seven

Josh Sawislak
Strategic Advisor
Four Twenty Seven

Carmen L. Lacambra
Head of Research and Environmental Services
Global Climate Adaptation Partnership


Nathaniel Matthews
Program Director
Global Resilience Partnership

Swenja Surminski
Senior Research Fellow
Grantham Research Institute

Celeste Connors
Executive Director
Hawaii Green Growth

Vladimir Stenek
Senior Climate Change Specialist


Jane McDonald
Managing Director

Jo-Ellen Perry
Adaptation Lead for Resilience

Reinhard Mechler
Deputy Program Director
IPCC AR6 Adaptation

Jay Koh
Managing Director
Lightsmith Group


Patrick Regan
Associate Director
Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative

Aris Papadopoulos
Founder of Resilient Action Fund
Resilience Action Fund, UNISDR-ARISE

Kevin Bush
DC Chief Resilience Officer
Rockefeller (100 RC)

Miroslav Petkov (AREG Observer)
S&P Global


Richard J.T. Klein
Senior Research Fellow
Stockholm Environment Institute

Jenty Kirsch-Wood
Senior Technical Specialist - DRM and CCA

Peter Wheeler
Executive Vice President
The Nature Conservancy

Michael Cote
Project Director, Private Investment for Enhanced Resilience
Winrock International


Carlos Sanchez
Director, Climate Resilience Finance
Willis Towers Watson

Stephane Hallegatte
Lead Economist, GFDRR
World Bank

Moushumi Chaudhury,
Associate of Climate Resilience Practice

Niranjali Amerasinghe
Senior Associate of Sustainable Finance Center


Karl Mallon